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Okay, posting this for a friend... >.>

Does anyone know any random things that happened in US history? Pre-1776, year/name of fact...

If you know any history nerds, link them?

*okay, it can be after 1776, but that stuff's more, like, important atm.

*is lame*


( 17 comments — Leave a comment )
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:01 am (UTC)

In late May 1765, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions. The Virginia Resolves, as they were known, were passed on May 30, 1765, and denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies under the Stamp Act.

Before 1600:

* 1492-Christopher Columbus lands on one of the Bahamas Islands, discovering the New World for 15th century Europe
* 1494-Treaty of Tordesillas divides the New World between Spain and Portugal
* 1497-John Cabot is the first European since the Vikings to reach the North American mainland, which he claims for England


* 1513-Vasco Núñez de Balboa crosses isthmus of Panama, sees Pacific Ocean
* 1513-Juan Ponce de León claims Florida for Spain
* 1519-Hernán Cortés defeats Tlaxcala, a small state neighboring the Aztec empire
* 1520s-Spanish begin conquest of Maya civilization
* 1521-Cortes destroys the Aztec empire
* 1524-Giovanni da Verrazano, working for France, explores coastline from present-day North Carolina to Maine
* 1542-Hernando de Soto discovers the Mississippi River, strengthening Spanish claims to the interior of North America
* 1570s-Iroquois League founded
* 1587-Sir Walter Raleigh founds Roanoke Colony, the first English settlement in the New World, in the Virginia territory
* 1590-Roanoke found deserted

* 1607-Settlement of Popham Colony in Maine
* 1608-Popham Colony dissolved
* 1608-French establish colony at Quebec
* 1609-Henry Hudson, hired by the Dutch, explores the present-day Hudson River
* 1609-The United Provinces (the Netherlands) lays claim to the Hudson Valley area


* 1612-Tobacco cultivation introduced to Jamestown by John Rolfe
* 1614-First Anglo-Powatan War Ends
* 1619-First African slaves arrive at Jamestown
* 1619- Virginia House of Burgesses established


* 1620-Pilgrims arrive from Plymouth, England, on the Mayflower. They found Plymouth Colony in present-day Massachusetts; Mayflower Compact signed
* 1624-New Netherlands founded by the Dutch West India Company in present-day New York state
* 1624- Virginia becomes a royal colony
* 1626-New Amsterdam founded by the Dutch in present-day New York City
* 1629-Massachusetts Bay Colony founded, led by John Winthrop


* 1630-Winthrop Fleet travels to Massachusetts Bay Colony
* 1634-Province of Maryland founded
* 1634-Roger Williams banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony
* 1635-Connecticut Colony founded
* 1636-Rhode Island Colony founded by Roger Williams
* 1636-Harvard College founded
* 1637-New Haven Colony founded
* 1638-Delaware Colony founded
* 1638-New Sweden established
* 1639-Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony signed
* 1639-Fundamental Orders of Connecticut adopted


* 1643-New England Confederation created
* 1649-Maryland Toleration Act

Sep. 6th, 2006 04:01 am (UTC)

* 1662-Halfway Covenant adopted
* 1663-King Charles II of England grants charter for a new colony, Province of Carolina
* 1664-New Netherland ceded to England under Treaty of Breda and Treaty of Westminster (1664)


* 1670-Charles Town (Charleston) founded in present-day South Carolina
* 1672-Blue Laws enacted in Connecticut
* 1676-Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia
* 1677-Province of Maine absorbed by Massachusetts Bay Colony


* 1682-Province of Pennsylvania founded by William Penn
* King James II reduces colonial autonomy
* 1686-Dominion of New England decreed
* 1688-Glorious Revolution deposes James II and replaces him with William and Mary; Dominion of New England ceases to exist
* 1689-King William's War (1689-1697), part of the wider War of the Grand Alliance, begins


* 1692-Salem witchcraft trials in Salem Colony in Salem, Massachusetts
* 1697-The War of the Grand Alliance ends with the Treaty of Ryswick

* 1702 - Queen Anne's War (War of the Spanish Succession) begins
* 1702 - East Jersey and west Jersey become crown colonies


* 1713 - Queen Anne's War ends with the Treaty of Utrecht


* 1729: Province of Carolina proprietors sell out to Crown


* 1733 - Province of Georgia founded.
* 1734 - The First Great Awakening (1730s to 1760s) begins with the preaching of Jonathan Edwards
* 1735 - John Peter Zenger trial on freedom of the press issues.
* 1739 - George Whitefield tours the colonies (1739-1741) to preach the Great Awakening


* 1740 - King George's War (War of the Austrian Succession) begins
* 1748 - King George's War ends with the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle


* 1752 - Benjamin Franklin's kite experiment
* 1754 - French and Indian War begins
* 1758 - Treaty of Easton
* 1759 - Battle of the Plains of Abraham, part of the Battle of Quebec (1759)

* 1760 - King George III crowned
* 1763 - Treaty of Paris (1763) ends French and Indian War
* 1763 - Pontiac's Rebellion begins
* 1763 - British Royal Proclamation of 1763
* 1764 - Currency Act, passed by Parliament
* 1764 - Revenue Act is passed to enforce the Sugar and Molasses Act
* 1765 - Stamp Act passed
* 1765 - Stamp Act Congress convenes
* 1765 - First Quartering Act
* 1767 - Townshend Acts


* 1770 - Boston Massacre
* 1771 - Battle of Alamance in North Carolina
* 1772 - Samuel Adams organizes the Committees of Correspondence
* 1773 - British Parliament passes Tea Act
* 1773 - Boston Tea Party
* 1774 - First Continental Congress
* 1774 - Dunmore's War
* 1774 - British pass Intolerable Acts, including:
o Boston Port Act (March 31)
o Administration of Justice Act (May 20),
o Massachusetts Government Act (May 20),
o Second Quartering Act (June 2), and
o Quebec Act
* 1775 - Battle of Lexington and Concord
* 1775 - Second Continental Congress
* 1775 - Olive Branch Petition sent to King George III
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:06 am (UTC)
Charter for "Maryland Colony" (in Latin, "Terra Maria") was granted to Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, on June 20, 1632.

The first settlers, led by Leonard Calvert, Cecil Calvert's younger brother, departed from Cowes, on the Isle of Wight, on November 22, 1633 -landing on March 25, 1634.

February 1635 he had to summon a colonial assembly. In 1638 the assembly forced him to govern according to the laws of England, and subsequently the right to initiate legislation passed to the assembly.

In 1638 Calvert seized a trading post in Kent Island established by the Virginian William Claiborne. In 1644 Claiborne led an uprising of Maryland protestants. Calvert was forced to flee to Virginia, but he returned at the head of an armed force in 1646 and reasserted proprietorial rule.

In 1650 the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government and set up a new government that outlawed both Catholicism and Anglicanism. This lasted until 1658 when the Calvert family regained control and re-enacted the Toleration Act.

Sep. 6th, 2006 04:06 am (UTC)
Shay's Rebellion (1786-1787)
Daniel P Shays was the leader of a large number of disaffected farmers, upset at the rather unfair (and unrepresented) taxes levied on them to pay for the previous war. He led a very well-trained army against the militia.

They terrorized tax collectors, townsmen and banks for several months before hearing that the national army might be entering the fray (It wasn't, because by the at-the-time laws of the country, the federal government couldn't interfere with intrastate troubles), they decided to raid one of the stockpiles of federal weapons and munitions. They failed.

However, their attempt, their upset, and their trial stirred up enough sentiment and emotion to lead to the Second Constitutional Congress, which made for a more powerful National Government and, eventually, to George Washington's accepting the position of President.

So not only did our War Veterans fight for our rights as citizens to govern ourselves, they even created the US Constitution as it rules our country.
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:07 am (UTC)
Columbus came to town...and there was a turkey...??

The English...and other people! More English and then Men with really weird wigs!

*looks around*

Ok my US history sucks monkeys at this point.
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:09 am (UTC)
The first documented exploration of the area that would become Kentucky was made in 1750 by a scouting party led by Dr. Thomas Walker.

Much of what is now Kentucky was purchased from Native Americans in the treaties of Fort Stanwix (1768) and Sycamore Shoals (1775).
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:10 am (UTC)
730... The Great Awakening - Challenged the established clergy and eventually led to the proliferation of many Protestant denominations. This contributed to the concept of acceptance of religious tolerance, the decline of Puritanism, and the growth of Baptists, Methodist, and Presbyterians. If you want to know everything you ever wanted to know about Jonathan Edwards, the founder of this movement, go to the Jonathan Edwards web site.

1743.. King George's War, related to the Austrian succession.

1744... Benjamin Franklin invents the Franklin stove.. in essence, the "pot-belly" stove, whereby a cast iron stove in the middle of a room radiates heat... even for awhile after the fire has gone out.

1752.. The French establish two forts south of Lake Erie securing the headwaters of the Ohio River, prelude to the French-Indian War..

1753.. Twenty-one year old George Washington delivers a message to the French, to leave the area south of Lake Erie. They politely tell him his request was refused and he was invited to leave. See also Washington Triggers the French and Indian War.

1754.. The English start building Fort Duquesne (present day Pittsburgh). The French take the fort before it is finished. Virginia responded by sending George Washington to take it back. He was soundly defeated and surrendered to the French at Fort Necessity, south of Fort Duquesne.

1754.. The French and Indian War, (also the Adirondack web page is great site) also known as the Seven Years War, begins in the colonies, pitting the French, with Indian Allies, against the English to control New England. This is actually the third, and last, conflict with the French over what parts of North America they should control. At this time, the French controlled most land west of the Alleghenies, from Quebec to New Orleans, including the Mississippi River Valley.

1755.. Benjamin Franklin proposes the Colonies unite in the French and Indian War. His proposal is soundly rejected. The colonies don't want to give each other's autonomy.

1763.. The French and Indian War Ends. The French have finally been defeated and driven out of North America, after 100 years of conflict. They give up rights to lands they occupied in Canada and the upper Mississippi River Valley. They will exact their revenge by helping the fledgling colonies during their revolution from Britain twelve years later.

1759.. One of my ancestors, Jacob Feather, Revolutionary War Veteran, is born in Frankenthal, Germany

1769.. James Watt invents the steam engine and the industrial revolution begins.

1770.. The Boston Massacre, where British troops fire on Bostonians throwing snowballs will be a rallying cry through the Revolutionary years.

1775.. My ancestor Jacob Feather arrives in Philadelphia at age 16 with parents Joseph and Maria Vatter on the King of Prussia. (Named changed from Vatter to Feather by Jacob.)

1775.. Daniel Boone begins to clear the Wilderness Road into Kentucky.
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:12 am (UTC)
The Delaware River watershed was claimed by the British based on the explorations of John Cabot in 1497, Captain John Smith and others, and was given the name held as a title by Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the Governor of Virginia from 1610 until 1618. At that time the area was considered to be part of the Virginia colony.

However, the Dutch thought they also had a claim, based on the 1609 explorations of Henry Hudson, and under the auspices of the Dutch West India Company were the first Europeans to actually occupy the land. They established trading posts in 1624 at "Hooghe Eyland" (High Island), now Burlington Island, opposite Burlington, New Jersey, in 1626 at Fort Nassau, now Gloucester City, New Jersey, and at Swanendael, now Lewes, Delaware in 1631. Peter Minuit was the Dutch Director-General of the New Netherlands during this period and probably spent some time at the Burlington Island post, thereby familiarizing himself with the region.

In any case, Minuit had a falling out with the directors of the Dutch West India Company, was recalled from the New Netherlands, and promptly made his services available to his many friends in Sweden, then a major power in European politics. They established a New Sweden Company and, following much negotiation, he led a group under the flag of Sweden to the Delaware River in 1638. They established a trading post at Fort Christina, now in Wilmington, Delaware. Minuit claimed possession of the western side of the Delaware River, saying he had found no European settlement there. Unlike the Dutch West India Company, the Swedes intended to actually bring settlers to their outpost and begin a colony.

Minuit drowned in a hurricane on the way home that same year, but the Swedish colony continued to grow gradually. By 1644 Swedish and Finnish settlers were living along both sides of the Delaware River from Fort Christina to the Schuylkill River. New Sweden's best known governor, Johan Björnsson Printz, moved his residence to what is now Tinicum Township, Pennsylvania, where he intended to concentrate the settlements.

While the Dutch settlement at Swanendael, or Lewes, was soon destroyed in a war with native Americans, the Dutch never gave up their claim to the area, and in 1651 under the leadership of Peter Stuyvesant, built Fort Casimir, now New Castle, Delaware. Three years later, in 1654, Johan Rising, the Swedish governor captured Fort Casimir from Dutch. For the Swedes, this was a catastrophic miscalculation as the next summer, 1655, an enraged Stuyvesant led another Dutch expedition to the Delaware River, attacked all the Swedish communities and forcibly ended the New Sweden colony, incorporating the whole area back into the New Netherland colony.
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:13 am (UTC)
It wasn't long, though, before the Dutch as well were forcibly removed by the British, asserting their earlier claim. In 1664, James, the Duke of York, and brother of King Charles II, outfitted an expedition that easily ousted the Dutch from both the Delaware and Hudson Rivers and leaving the Duke of York the proprietary authority in the whole area.

However, Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, Proprietor of Maryland claimed a competing grant to lands on the western shore of the Delaware Bay, including all of the present state of Delaware. The claim was not pressed in deference to the royal will of Charles II to please his brother, James, Duke of York, who having won the area in war, and felt justified in his ownership of it. The area was administered from New York as a part of James' New York colony. At this point William Penn enters the picture and is granted "Pennsylvania," which grant specifically excluded New Castle or any of the lands within 12 miles of it. Nevertheless Penn wanted an outlet to the sea from his new province, and persuaded James to lease him the whole western shore of the Delaware Bay. So in 1682 Penn arrived in New Castle with two documents, a charter for the Province of Pennsylvania, and a lease for what became known as "the Lower Counties on the Delaware."

William Penn had inherited James' claims and thus began nearly 100 years of litigation between Penn and Baltimore, and their heirs, in the High Court of Chancery in London. The settlement of the legal battles began by the heirs agreeing to the survey performed by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon between 1763 and 1767, which resulted in the famous Mason-Dixon line. The final adjudication of the settlement did not occur until the very eve of the American Revolution and was certainly a major reason for the close political alliance between the property owners of the Lower Counties and the Royalist Proprietary government.

In William Penn's Frame of Government of 1682, he tried to establish a combined assembly for his whole domain by providing for equal membership from each county and requiring legislation to have the assent of both the Lower Counties and the Upper Counties of Chester, Philadelphia and Bucks. The meeting place also alternated between Philadelphia and New Castle. Once Philadelphia began to grow its leaders resented having to go to New Castle and gain agreement of the assemblymen from the sparsely populated Lower Counties and so there was a mutual agreement in 1704 for the two assemblies to meet separately from thenceforth. The Lower Counties did continue to share a governor, but the Province of Pennsylvania was never merged with the Lower Counties.
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:15 am (UTC)
When you get to the 1780's
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:20 am (UTC)
First Africans arrive in Virginia.

Beginning of large-scale introduction of African slave labor in the British Caribbean for sugar production.

Connecticut and Rhode Island prohibit further importation of slaves (although Rhode Island merchants remain in slave trade to other colonies).

Society of Friends (Quakers) abolishes slavery among members.

Vermont Constitution prohibits slavery.

Massachusetts Constitution adopted with freedom clause interpreted as prohibiting slavery.
Pennsylvania adopts gradual emancipation, freeing slaves born after 1780 upon their 28th birthday.

Connecticut and Rhode Island pass gradual emancipation laws.

Connecticut prohibits residents from participating in slave trade.

U.S. Constitution ratified with clause equating slaves to 3/5ths of a white citizen and provision that slave trade would end within 20 years.

Eli Whitney’s invention of cotton gin sets stage for expansion of slavery in American South as short-staple cotton becomes economical product.

Decade of greatest importation of African slaves into U.S., totaling approximately 200,000.

New York passes gradual emancipation law.

U.S. citizens prohibited from exporting slaves.
Gabriel’s conspiracy in Richmond, Virginia, seeks to overthrow slavery in Virginia.

Slave boatmen plot rebellion along Roanoke River in Virginia.

New Jersey passes gradual emancipation law.

Great Britain abolishes slave trade.

The American Colonization Society is founded, espousing the return of African Americans to Africa.

U.S. law equates slave trading with piracy, punishable by death.

The Missouri Crisis paralyzes national politics, as southerners and northerners argue over the admission of new slave states to the Union. Eventually, Missouri is admitted as a slave state, balanced by the admission of Maine as a free state. The Missouri Compromise also includes an agreement to bar slavery from northern federal territories -- a compromise that holds until 1854.
President James Monroe orders first U.S. Navy patrol against slave ships on West African coast
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:20 am (UTC)
The first settlers found the colony of Liberia, for freed African American slaves returning to Africa. Over the 1820s, some 1,400 blacks immigrate from the U.S. to the colony.
Denmark Vesey slave revolt plot uncovered in Charleston, South Carolina, and conspirators executed.
South Carolina passes Negro Seamen Acts requiring imprisonment of black sailors while in port to prevent their inciting slave revolts. Similar acts later passed in Alabama, Louisiana, and Cuba.
Pedro Blanco, former Spanish slave-ship captain, establishes slave factory at Lomboko on the Gallinas River in present Sierra Leone

The Antelope Case: The U.S. Revenue Cutter Dallas seizes a slave ship, the Antelope, sailing under a Venezualan flag, with a cargo of 281 Africans, claimed by Portuguese and Spanish owners, in international waters. The U.S. Supreme Court hears five days of arguments before packed courtrooms.
March 16: John Marshall delivers a unaminous opinion declaring the slave trade a violation of natural law, meaning it can be upheld only by positive law.
But the ruling sets only 80% of the Africans free. U.S. law by this point defined the slave trade as piracy, but the court held that U.S. could not prescribe law for other nations -- and noted that the slave trade was legal as far as Spain, Portugal, Venezuela were concerned. Vessel was restored. Those Africans designated as Spanish property (numbering 39) the court recognized as property and sold into slavery on behalf of claimants. Portuguese claims the court found shakier, setting those Africans free.

Jim Pembroke, a slave in Maryland, escapes and begins making his way northward, where he will rename himself James W.C. Pennington and rise to prominence within the African-American abolition movement.

David Walker, a free African-American, publishes Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, a radical pamphlet attacking slavery and the colonization movement. The Appeal invokes the rhetoric and spirit of the American Revolution, demanding: "See your Declaration, Americans!!! Do you understand your own language?"
Copies of the Appeal soon begin turning up in Southern ports, probably secretly distributed by free African-American seamen.
A year later, Walker is found dead near the doorway of his shop in Boston.

The first annual Convention of the People of Colour assembles in Philadelphia to organize African-American opposition to slavery and to discrimination in the free states.

January 1: William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing the Liberator.

August 22: In Southhampton County, Virginia, Nathaniel Turner leads a small slave uprising that quickly spreads to neighboring plantations and within a few days kills some 60 whites before local militia contain the revolt. In reprisal, scores of slaves are interrogated, tortured, and killed by panicked slaveholders. Turner himself eludes captures for a few months, but is eventually jailed and executed.

December: The Virginia legislature begins debating emancipation -- the last viable movement for abolition coming from within a southern state until the Civil War.

William Lloyd Garrison and others found the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Connecticut passes the “Black Law,” barring blacks from attending private schools outside their resident towns without permission from town leaders. In Canterbury, CT, Prudence Crandell, a white school teacher, is prosecuted several times under this law.

An anti-abolitionist mob sacks the home of prominent New York abolitionist Lewis Tappan, part of a savage riot that also destroys the home and church of African-American Episcopal Reverend Peter Williams.

May 25: in response to petitions calling on Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia, the House of Representatives implements the “gag rule,” automatically tabling abolitionist petitions. The policy is repeatedly renewed over the coming years.

Sep. 6th, 2006 04:21 am (UTC)

Abolitionist and editor Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy is murdered by an anti-abolitionist mob in Alton, Illinois.

An Antislavery Convention of American Women meets in New York City with both black and white women participating.

African-Americans lose the right to vote in Pennsylvania (by amendment to the State Constitution) and Michigan (by state law). In New York, African-Americans petition the state legislature for voting rights.

August 18: The U.S. Exploring Expedition sails from Hampton Roads, Virginia.

September: Frederick Baily escapes slavery, making his way from Baltimore to New York City, and from there to New Bedford, where he takes on a new name, Frederick Douglass.

A Philadelphia mob destroys the Pennsylvania Hall, where abolitionists have held meetings, then goes on a rampage burning and terrorizing African-American neighborhoods. Municipal authorities do nothing to halt the carnage.

Joshua R. Giddings of Ohio is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, the first avowed abolitionist Congressman.

Rev. James W.C. Pennington, who would minister to the Amistad Africans, pastors an African Congregational Church at Newtown, Connecticut. In 1840 he moves to a new congregation in Hartford. In 1841 he publishesA Textbook of the Origin and History of the Colored People, the first history of its kind.

June 12: HMS Buzzard escorts two American slave ships into New York, the brig Eagle and the schoonerClara, to be tried by American courts. Two weeks later, several more slavers arrive in New York, the Butterfly and the Catharine, manned by British naval officers as prizes of another royal ship on the Africa squadron. The British had already attempted to try the vessels in Sierra Leone before a mixed Anglo-Spanish commission adjudicating alleged slaving, but that commission had refused to try the vessels on the grounds they sailed under the American flag. At this point the British had escorted their prizes to New York, trying to force the Americans to enforce their laws against slave trading.

August 27: The Amistad is taken into New London.

November 13: The Liberty Party holds its first national convention in Warsaw, New York, proclaiming its anti-slavery program and nominating James C. Birney for President.
Among the Liberty Party's leading supporters is African-American abolitionist Henry Highland Garnet.

Theodore Dwight Weld publishes American Slavery as it is, a powerful indictment of slavery.

Garrisonians take control of the American Anti-Slavery Society and radicalize its platform, demanding the immediate abolition of slavery.

President Martin Van Buren orders U.S. Navy to resume West African patrols.

January 19: The Wilkes Expedition claims part of Antarctica for the U.S.

Richard Henry Dana, Jr. publishes Two Years Before the Mast.

The Amistad Africans spend the year in jail.

Division in American Anti-Slavery Society over role of women weakens abolitionist efforts

March 9: The U.S. Supreme Court upholds the freedom of the Amistad Africans.

November 7: African American slaves aboard the brig Creole revolt en route from Virginia to New Orleans. The rebels force the captain and crew to sail them to Nassau in the Bahamas. There British authorities take nineteen of the rebels into custody but free the remainder, England having abolished slavery in the British West Indies in 1833.

Frederick Douglass is hired by the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society as a full-time lecturer.
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:21 am (UTC)

January 18: Senator John C. Calhoun proposes a resolution calling on President Tyler to protest the British handling of theCreole incident. January 29: U.S. Secretary of State Daniel Webster issues a dispatch to the ambassador to Great Britain demanding indemnification for the freed slaves.

August 9: The U.S. and Great Britian sign the Webster-Ashburn Treaty, adjusting boundaries between the U.S. and Canada, and agreeing to cooperate on suppressing the slave trade.

In Boston, escaped slave George Lattimore is captured by bounty hunters -- the first in a series of confrontational fugitive slave cases. Abolitionists raise funds to purchase Lattimore's freedom.

In Philadelphia, a parade commemorating the abolition of slavery in the British West Indies is attacked by a proslavery mob.

Sojourner Truth, an African-American woman who escaped from slavery, begins lecturing for abolitionism.

Rev. Henry Highland Garnet delivers a "Call to Rebellion" at the National Negro Convention in Buffalo, New York, exhorting African-Americans to resist slavery by means of armed rebellion (and holding up Cinque, among others, as heroes in the cause).

At the party convention for the Liberty Party in Buffalo, African-Americans participate directly for the first time, with Henry Highland Garnet serving on the nominating committee and two other black clergymen, Rev. Charles B. Ray and Rev. Samuel Ringgold, also playing prominent roles.

Slavery entirely prohibited in Connecticut by state law.

Compromise of 1850 admits California as free state, eliminates slave trade in District of Columbia, establishes Utah and New Mexico without restrictions on slavery, and requires return of fugitive slaves.

Kansas-Nebraska Act repeals Missouri Compromise, allowing popular sovereignty to determine slave- or free-state status of territories seeking statehood, which increases sectional division within the U.S. and breaks down traditional two-party system, giving rise to Republican Party.

Dred Scott decision by Supreme Court denies any possibility of citizenship for African Americans, imperils fugitive slaves, and sets back cause of abolition.

John Brown’s unsuccessful Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, raid to incite slave rebellion heightens tension over slavery.

20 December, South Carolina secedes from the Union after Abraham Lincoln’s election as president, followed by 10 other states through May 1861.

February, seceding states establish government of the Confederate States of America and create constitution endorsing slavery but prohibiting slave trade.

April, When Confederate forces fire on U.S. troops at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, President Lincoln calls for troops to put down “insurrection” in the South, beginning the Civil War.

September 22: President Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation, granting freedom to slaves in areas of the South in active rebellion on 1 January 1863.

Slavery abolished in the U.S. by the 13th Amendment to the Constitution.
Sep. 6th, 2006 04:21 am (UTC)

14th Amendment to the Constitution defines a citizen as anyone born in the U.S. (except Native Americans) or naturalized, thereby extending all rights of citizenship to African Americans.
American Missionary Association founds Fisk University, among other black colleges established by this successor of the Amistad incident.

Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on juries and in public accommodations, except schools.
Blanche Kelso Bruce of Mississippi elected as first black U.S. Senator.

Supreme Court Civil Rights Cases overturns Civil Rights Act and rules that 14th Amendment does not apply to privately owned facilities, including hotels, restaurants, and railroads, leading to segregated “Jim Crow” laws, especially in the South.

As part of his Universal Negro Improvement Association, Marcus Garvey establishes Black Star shipping lineJ.H. Rainey and former sailor and Civil War hero Robert Smalls of South Carolina are among first African Americans elected to U.S. Congress.

First black officers commissioned in U.S. Navy.

Congress passes Civil Rights Act.

Thurgood Marshall appointed as first African-American Supreme Court Justice.

Captain Samuel L. Gravely, Jr., promoted to become first African-American rear admiral in the U.S. Navy.
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